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A Comprehensive Analysis of Immune Constituents in Blood and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Allows Identification of an Immune Signature of Severe Asthma in Children

Karine Adel-Patient 1, * Marta Grauso 1 Rola Abou-Taam 2 Blanche Guillon 1 Céline Dietrich 3 François Machavoine 3 Mélanie Briard 1 Nicolas Garcelon 4, 2 Hassan Faour 2, 4 Antoine Neuraz 4, 2 Christophe Delacourt 2 Thierry Jo Molina 4, 2 Maria Leite-De-Moraes 3 Guillaume Lezmi 2, 3, *
* Corresponding author
4 CRC - UMR_S 1138 - Métabolisme, Cancer et Immunité
IGR - Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, SU - Sorbonne Université, UP - Université de Paris, CRC (UMR_S_1138 / U1138) - Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers
Abstract : Background; Targeted approaches may not account for the complexity of inflammation involved in children with severe asthma (SA), highlighting the need to consider more global analyses. We aimed to identify sets of immune constituents that distinguish children with SA from disease-control subjects through a comprehensive analysis of cells and immune constituents measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood. Methods: Twenty children with SA and 10 age-matched control subjects with chronic respiratory disorders other than asthma were included. Paired blood and BAL samples were collected and analyzed for a large set of cellular (eosinophils, neutrophils, and subsets of lymphocytes and innate lymphoid cells) and soluble (chemokines, cytokines, and total antibodies) immune constituents. First, correlations of all immune constituents between BAL and blood and with demographic and clinical data were assessed (Spearman correlations). Then, all data were modelled using supervised multivariate analyses (partial least squares discriminant analysis, PLS-DA) to identify immune constituents that significantly discriminate between SA and control subjects. Univariate analyses were performed (Mann-Whitney tests) and then PLS-DA and univariate analyses were combined to identify the most discriminative and significant constituents. Results: Concentrations of soluble immune constituents poorly correlated between BAL and blood. Certain constituents correlated with age or body mass index and, in asthmatics, with clinical symptoms, such as the number of exacerbations in the previous year, asthma control test score, or forced expiratory volume. Multivariate supervised analysis allowed construction of a model capable of distinguishing children with SA from control subjects with 80% specificity and 100% sensitivity. All immune constituents contributed to the model but some, identified by variable-important-in-projection values > 1 and p < 0.1, contributed more strongly, including BAL Th1 and Th2 cells and eosinophilia, CCL26 (Eotaxin 3), IgA and IL-19 concentrations in blood. Blood concentrations of IL-26, CCL13, APRIL, and Pentraxin-3 may also help in the characterization of SA. Conclusions: The analysis of a large set of immune constituents may allow the identification of a biological immune signature of SA. Such an approach may provide new leads for delineating the pathogenesis of SA in children and identifying new targets for its diagnosis, prediction, and personalized treatment.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 16, 2021 - 9:20:25 PM
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Karine Adel-Patient, Marta Grauso, Rola Abou-Taam, Blanche Guillon, Céline Dietrich, et al.. A Comprehensive Analysis of Immune Constituents in Blood and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Allows Identification of an Immune Signature of Severe Asthma in Children. Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers, 2021, 12, ⟨10.3389/fimmu.2021.700521⟩. ⟨hal-03327837⟩

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