Design of model tokamak particles for future toxicity studies: Morphology and physical characterization

E. Bernard F. Jambon 1 I. Georges 1 M. Sanles Sobrido 2 Jérôme Rose 2 N. Herlin-Boime 3 F. Miserque 4 P. Beaunier 5 D. Vrel 6 S. Dine 7 E. Hodille 8 J. Chêne 9 S. Garcia-Argote 1 G. Pieters 1 S. Peillon 10 F. Gensdarmes 10 G. Dinescu 11 T. Acsente 11 C. Uboldi 12 T. Orsiere 12 V. Malard 13 B. Rousseau G. Dine 14 Ph. Delaporte 15 C Grisolia
Abstract : During ITER operation, it is expected that the large panel of plasma-wall interactions triggers the production of dust particles from the tungsten and beryllium first wall. These particles can be loaded with tritium (T) used as a fuel for the fusion reaction; T inventory is of prime importance for the safety assessment, particularly when considering dispersible matters that could be released in case of a Loss Of Vacuum Accident (LOVA),. The impact of accidental inhalation of such particles has therefore to be evaluated. Yet, particles properties in terms of tritium inventory and general behaviour are strongly dependent on their physical and chemical characteristics, and large uncertainties remain on those parameters; It is therefore important to obtain and characterize relevant W dust samples for toxicity studies before ITER operation starts. We produced model tungsten (W) Nano-Particles (NPs) by two different methods with characteristics closer to the plasma-wall interaction processes than grinding (usually used to produce commercial NPs): (i) magnetron plasma sputtering followed by gas condensation as well as (ii) laser ablation. The two types of tungsten NPs obtained exhibit very different properties investigated by a large characterization techniques panel; but both sets show similarities with samples collected in tokamak or observed in dusty plasmas setups, therefore could potentially be expected in ITER. Producing samples with strong differences is an asset to lead a first global study, highlighting which parameters are key, whether it affects the tritium inventory or the toxicity for lung cells during in vitro studies. In a second phase, it will help precise the impact of ITER particles when their definition will clarify. The aim of this paper is therefore to study and describe the characteristics of different types of W dusts, this knowledge being mandatory for the next steps of the project dealing with tritium inventory in the described W dusts and their suspension in various liquid media for cell exposure for toxicity studies.
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E. Bernard, F. Jambon, I. Georges, M. Sanles Sobrido, Jérôme Rose, et al.. Design of model tokamak particles for future toxicity studies: Morphology and physical characterization. Fusion Engineering and Design, Elsevier, 2019, 145, pp.60-65. ⟨10.1016/j.fusengdes.2019.05.037⟩. ⟨hal-02169319⟩

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